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不吃早餐會得心血管疾病嗎


www.erchengauto.com 來源:中國經濟網  日期:2019-06-12

  很多人都知道早餐很重要,美國對此還有一項研究發現,從未吃過早餐的人全因死亡和心血管死亡明顯增加,尤其是中風死亡增加。然而,不少人難免有時忽略甚至錯過早餐,不吃早餐真有這么大危害嗎?
 
  讓我們來看看美國的相關研究。在該研究中,研究人員對參加美國全國健康和營養調查的6550名參與者開展了為期18年的跟蹤研究。結果顯示,在考慮了社會經濟狀況、種族、年齡、性別、飲食和生活方式、體重和心血管風險因素后,從來不吃早餐的人比每天都吃早餐的人心血管死亡風險增加87%,全因死亡風險增加19%,中風風險增加239%。
 
  然而,這項研究其實具有局限性,大家不用過于擔心。首先,這是一項前瞻性隊列研究,研究結果是觀察結果,只能發現相關性,不能證明因果關系。也就是說,不能證明不吃早餐就是誘發心血管疾病的直接原因。其次,一般來說,堅持每天吃早餐的人,對于身體健康更為重視,因而可能具有其它良好生活習慣,比如不抽煙、不喝酒、經常健身、不熬夜等。另外,雖然研究表明心血管死亡風險增加87%,但實際增加的病例數并非很多——在18年的觀察研究中,僅發現了41例病例。
 
  值得注意的是,有時我們也不能認定吃早餐的人就一定更健康。如果早餐吃的是油條油餅、漢堡薯條,這也不能算作健康飲食。而飲食是否健康需要觀察長遠的飲食情況,不能僅看一頓吃不吃或者吃得怎么樣。
 
  實際上,導致心血管疾病的因素非常復雜。比如抽煙喝酒、不運動、鹽攝入過多等。
 
  那么,不吃早餐可以嗎?由于生活節奏不斷加快,越來越多的人開始忽視早餐。雖說不吃早餐不一定會得心血管疾病,但仍建議大家盡量堅持吃早餐。
 
  早餐是日常膳食的一部分,每天吃早餐也是世界衛生組織(WHO)提倡的健康生活方式。早餐作為一天的第一餐,對膳食營養攝入、健康狀況和工作或學習效率至關重要。早餐距離前一餐的時間最長,能量消耗大,如果不及時補充,會出現饑餓感,導致大腦興奮性降低,反應遲鈍,注意力不集中,影響工作和學習效率。
 
  大量研究也顯示,規律性吃早餐有益健康。還有不少研究發現,規律性吃早餐與肥胖、心血管疾病的發生存在負相關性。我國膳食指南也指出,合理飲食可以降低心血管疾病的發生風險,而規律性吃早餐也是合理飲食的一部分,因此很重要。
 
  然而,很多人早餐都吃得不夠好。《中國居民早餐飲食狀況調查報告》顯示,國人35%不能天天吃早餐;即便能吃上早餐,很多人也吃得并不健康,有55%的人每天早餐的食物品種不足3種,還有42%的人10分鐘囫圇搞定,很難達到平衡膳食。
 
  其實,健康早餐的基本原則是:盡量保證食物種類多樣、營養搭配合理。
 
  對此,建議從兩方面做起:一是早餐要吃飽。一般來說,建議早餐提供的能量占全天總能量的25%至30%,以保證整個上午的工作和學習效率。所以,早餐要盡量吃飽。二是早餐要吃好。這里的好是指早餐的營養價值要好。要為人體提供豐富的營養,早餐最好含有蔬菜、水果、全谷物和蛋奶等食物,這樣才能保證獲得均衡營養。比如,如果你習慣了每天吃豆漿油條的話,不妨加入香蕉或蘋果;每天喝白粥吃饅頭,不妨加點蔬菜和雞蛋就更完美了。
 
  對于一些上班族或無法做早餐的群體,建議大家可以在家或單位囤一點早餐谷物麥片、牛奶、堅果、水果等,以備不時之需。
 
  (作者系食品與營養信息交流中心科學技術部主任)
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